Young Earth or Old Earth?
Creation: https://answersingenesis.org/answers/books/universe-by-design/
Anti-Creation: http://talkorigins.org/origins/faqs-index.html


Intelligent Design
Man vs. Cat vs. Inanimate
Forest vs. Garden, Bedroom



Astronomy
The Big Bang

Dopler Effect


Red Shift
Hubble Constant

Speed of Light and Inflation

Cosmic Microwave Backgroud (CMB)
Anthropic Principle

Spiral Galaxies





Geology
The Geologic Column Model



The Geologic Column Observed
Wikipedia: The geologic record is in no one place entirely complete," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_record.

Creationist Site: Approximately 77% of the earth's surface area on land and under the sea has seven or more (70% or more) of the strata systems missing beneath; 94% of the earth's surface has three or more systems missing beneath; and an estimated 99.6% has at least one missing system.2 Only a few locations on earth (about 0.4% of its area) have been described with the succession of the ten systems beneath (west Nepal, west Bolivia, and central Poland). Even where the ten systems may be present, geologists recognize individual systems to be incomplete. The entire geologic column, composed of complete strata systems, exists only in the diagrams drawn by geologists! http://www.icr.org/article/ten-misconceptions-about-geologic-column/


Geologic Column Correlation via Index Fossils (see Geologic Column Model Chart)


Radiometric Dating
Like uranium to lead.  Cannot be used directly to on sedimentary rock.  "After one half-life has elapsed, one half of the atoms of the nuclide in question will have decayed into a "daughter" nuclide. ...If a material that selectively rejects the daughter nuclide is heated, any daughter nuclides that have been accumulated over time will be lost through diffusion, setting the isotopic "clock" to zero. The temperature at which this happens is known as the closure temperature or blocking temperature and is specific to a particular material and isotopic system. These temperatures are experimentally determined in the lab by artificially resetting sample minerals using a high-temperature furnace. As the mineral cools, the crystal structure begins to form and diffusion of isotopes is less easy. At a certain temperature, the crystal structure has formed sufficiently to prevent diffusion of isotopes. This temperature is what is known as closure temperature and represents the temperature below which the mineral is a closed system to isotopes. Thus an igneous or metamorphic rock or melt, which is slowly cooling, does not begin to exhibit measurable radioactive decay until it cools below the closure temperature. The age that can be calculated by radiometric dating is thus the time at which the rock or mineral cooled to closure temperature." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiometric_dating "The advantage of isochron dating as compared to simple radiometric dating techniques is that no assumptions are needed about the initial amount of the daughter nuclide in the radioactive decay sequence. Indeed the initial amount of the daughter product can be determined using isochron dating. This technique can be applied if the daughter element has at least one stable isotope other than the daughter isotope into which the parent nuclide decays." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isochron_dating


Carbon-14 Dating
Wikipedia: "Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method of determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon ... used to calculate when the animal or plant died. The older a sample is, the less C14 there is to be detected, and because the half-life of C14 (the period of time after which half of a given sample will have decayed) is about 5,730 years, the oldest dates that can be reliably measured by radiocarbon dating are around 50,000 years ago. ... During its life, a plant or animal is exchanging carbon with its surroundings, so the carbon it contains will have the same proportion of 14
C
as the atmosphere. ... The above calculations make several assumptions, such as that the level of C14 in the atmosphere has remained constant over time. In fact, the level of C14 in the atmosphere has varied significantly and as a result the values provided by the equation above have to be corrected by using data from other sources. This is done by calibration curves." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiocarbon_dating


The Cambrian Explosion
Wikipedia: "Many of the present phyla appeared during this period, with the exception of Bryozoa, which made its earliest known appearance in the Lower Ordovician. The Cambrian explosion has generated extensive scientific debate. The seemingly rapid appearance of fossils in the “Primordial Strata” was noted as early as the 1840s, and in 1859 Charles Darwin discussed it as one of the main objections that could be made against the theory of evolution by natural selection.  ...  In On the Origin of Species, Charles Darwin considered this sudden appearance of solitary group of trilobites with no apparent antecedents, and absence of other fossils to be "undoubtedly of the gravest nature" among the difficulties in his theory of natural selection. He reasoned that earlier seas had swarmed with living creatures, but that their fossils had not been found due to the imperfections of the fossil record. In the sixth edition of his book, he stressed his problem further as:  "To the question why we do not find rich fossiliferous deposits belonging to these assumed earliest periods prior to the Cambrian system, I can give no satisfactory answer."  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambrian_explosion


Lagerstätten
Wikipedia: A Lagerstätte (from German, Lager 'storage' Stätte 'place') is a sedimentary deposit that exhibits extraordinary fossils with exceptional preservation—sometimes including preserved soft tissues.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lagerst%C3%A4tte
Burgess Shale, Canadian Rockies of British Columbia, Middle Cambrian
Maotianshan Shales (Chengjiang), Yunnan Province, China, Early Cambrian
Wheeler Shale (House Range), Western Utah, US, Early Cambrian

Meyer - Creationism:
http://www.discovery.org/articleFiles/PDFs/Cambrian.pdf
Meyer SC (2013). Darwin's Doubt: The Explosive Origin of Animal Life and the Case for Intelligent Design. HarperOne. ISBN 978-0062071477
Meyer SC (2009). Signature in the cell: DNA and the evidence for intelligent design. HarperOne. ISBN 0-06-147278-6.


Punctuated Equilibrium



Extinction Events


The Ice Age


History - Rise of Civilization, Agricultural Revolution, Bristlecone Tree Rings, Ice Cores, Pleistocene/Holocene Boundry,


Language
In phonetics, vowel reduction is any of various changes in the acoustic quality of vowels, ... which are perceived as "weakening". It most often makes the vowels shorter. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vowel_reduction.  In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (sometimes spelled shwa)[1] refers to the mid-central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schwa.

In phonology, syncope (/ˈsɪŋkəpiː/; Greek: syn- + koptein "to strike, cut off") is the loss of one or more sounds from the interior of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syncope_(phonology)


In grammar, inflection or inflexion is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, mood, voice, aspect, person, number, gender and case. The inflection of verbs is also called conjugation, and the inflection of nouns, adjectives and pronouns is also called declension.


Elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.
English: comfortable    /ˈkʌmfərtəbəl/    /ˈkʌmftərbəl/
Japanese: Matsushita-san wa imasu ka? ("Is Mr. Matsushita in?")  Pronounced: matsush'tasanwa imas'ka

Apocope (/əˈpɒkəpiː/) is the loss of one or more sounds from the end of a word, and especially the loss of an unstressed vowel. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apocope

Syncope (Greek: syn- + koptein "to strike, cut off") is the loss of one or more sounds from the interior of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.
Synchronic:
In Inflections: Imir (To play) should become *"imirím" (I play). Imir becomes Imrím.
In informal speech: English did n[o]t > di[d]n't (with apostrophe = contractions)

Diachronically
English Worcester, pronounced /ˈwʊstər/
Latin cál[i]dum > Italian caldo "hot"


Inflection
Because the Proto-Indo-European language was highly inflected, all of its descendant Indo-European languages, such as Albanian, English, German, Russian, Persian, Kurdish, Italian, Irish, Spanish, French, Hindi, Marathi, Urdu, Bengali, and Nepali, are inflected to a greater or lesser extent. In general, older Indo-European languages such as Latin, Ancient Greek, Old English, Old Norse, and Sanskrit are extensively inflected because of their temporal proximity to Proto-Indo-European. Deflexion has caused modern versions of some Indo-European languages that were previously highly inflected to be much less so; an example is Modern English, as compared to Old English. In general, languages where deflexion occurs replace inflectional complexity with more rigorous word order, which provides the lost inflectional details.

Old English was a moderately inflected language, using an extensive case system similar to that of modern Icelandic or German. Middle and Modern English lost progressively more of the Old English inflectional system. Modern English is considered a weakly inflected language.
2nd person Old English - Nom., Obj., Gen., Pos.
singular   thou    thee    thy      thine
plural       ye       you    your    yours
2nd person Modern English
singular   you    you    your     yours
plural       you    you    your    yours

Latin, the mother tongue of the Romance languages, was highly inflected; nouns and adjectives had different forms according to seven grammatical cases (including five major ones) with five major patterns of declension, and three genders instead of the two found in most Romance tongues. There were four patterns of conjugation in six tenses, three moods (indicative, subjunctive, imperative, plus the infinitive, participle, gerund, gerundive, and supine) and two voices (passive and active), all overtly expressed by affixes (passive voice forms were periphrastic in three tenses).

Old Norse was inflected, but modern Swedish, Norwegian, and Danish have, like English, lost almost all overt inflection.


Genetics - Mitochondrial Eve